Catholic reformation and baroque style

Indebted to contemporary French and Spanish models, the palace is skillfully related to the landscape. Stone and mortar were often blended with statuary and painting; indeed it was difficult to see where one art left off and the other began.

In the subsequent decades, many churches, public buildings, city gates, palaces and other structures were constructed or rebuilt in this style. The impetus for such reform emanated from the Society of Jesus the Jesuitsfounded by S.

A typically powerful and dramatic style, it influenced all the arts, giving rise to Baroque architectureas well as Baroque painting and sculpure: In the Spanish colony of Naples, the Catholic Neapolitan School of Painting was led by a series of devout artists such as: To inject momentum into its campaign, the Roman Church - aided by the newly-formed Jesuit order, as well as wealthy pious individuals - began commissioning new architectureworks of altarpiece art mostly large-scale oil paintingsinspirational church fresco paintingsand major pieces of ecclesiastical sculpture and wood carving.

With the great development of the engraving and printmaking market in Antwerp in the 16th century, the public was provided with accessible and affordable images. His iconic masterpiece is the diminutive church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontanedistinguished by a complicated plan arrangement that is partly oval and partly a cross and so has complex convex-concave wall rhythms.

In fact, Caravaggio's use of street people as models for his sacred figures, led to such realism that he was criticised by conservatives for showing insufficient respect to the Virgin Mary.

Under the ultra-devout King Philip IIpainters and sculptors of the Spanish Baroque produced some of the most spiritually intense illustrations of Catholic doctrine. Capable priests were needed for the education of the faithful, and, thus, seminaries multiplied to prepare the clergy for a more austere life in the service of the church.

Perhaps the most complete victory for the Counter-Reformation was the restoration of Roman Catholic domination in Poland and in Hussite Bohemia. The earliest Baroque structures in Malta were the decorative elements within the aqueduct, such as the Wignacourt Arch and several fountains.

This much is evident from the background of an epitaph pained in by Martin Schulz, destined for the Nikolaikirche in Berlin see Figure 5. It was he who in convened the Council of Trent. A major theological difference between Protestantism and Catholicism is the question of transubstantiationor the literal transformation of the Communion wafer and wine into the body and blood of Christ, though both Lutheran and Reformed Christians affirmed the real presence of Christ in the Eucharistthe former as a sacramental union and the latter as a pneumatic presence.

This legend, though unfounded, has long been a mainstay of histories of music. It is possible, however, that some of the Fathers had proposed such a measure. Historical Dictionary of Calvinism. Repentance of Peter by El Greco— By the Jesuits had colleges, and by —just 18 years before the suppression of the order—the number had risen to Both figures were widely influential in establishing guidelines for the creation of religious art, even as they came to vigorously oppose many designs and themes favored by Mannerist artists and their patrons.

Third, reformers - in particular, pious individuals such as Ignatius of Loyola, Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross, Francis de Sales and Philip Neri - insisted that Catholic art should encourage piety: Paleotti was never able to complete his theological work on painting and sculpture, but even in its incomplete form his treatise was to have a major impact in defining the religious art of the later sixteenth century.

As a result, Galileo Galilei was placed under house arrest, served in Rome, SienaArcetriand Florencefor publishing writings, said to be "vehemently suspected of being heretical", and his opponents condemned heliocentric theory and temporarily banned its teaching in Instrumental music - particularly for organ and violin - gained equal popularity, for the first time, with song.

New churches were built in the Baroque style, while older ones were rebuilt or redecorated. The Council of Trent To rebuild confidence in the authority of the Roman Catholic Church, after the twin shocks of the Protestant Reformation and the Sack of Romea campaign of reform was necessary.

The Jesuit Contribution New York: An actual new calendar had to wait until the Gregorian calendar in This followed an influential book by the Jesuit Cardinal Robert Bellarmine — During the Jubilee more than three million pilgrims visited the city to admire the many monuments that Clement and his immediate successors had built in preceding years.

Lutherans strongly defended their existing sacred art from a new wave of Calvinist-on-Lutheran iconoclasm in the second half of the century, as Calvinist rulers or city authorities attempted to impose their will on Lutheran populations in the " Second Reformation " of about The Catholic Church viewed Protestantism and Reformed iconoclasm as a threat to the church and in response came together at the Council of Trent to institute some of their own reforms.

There was little significant papal reaction to the Protestants or to demands for reform from within the Roman Catholic Church before mid-century.

The Italian Rococowhich flourished in Rome from the s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini.

Characteristics of Protestant & Catholic Baroque Art

Narrative scenes from the Bible, especially as book illustrations and prints, and, later, moralistic depictions of modern life were preferred. The stylistic changes evident in the visual arts at the beginning of the Baroque period can in part be traced to historical developments that occurred in the wake of the Council of Trent —the church council that was to define the character of Roman Catholicism and its teachings until modern times.

Lutherans continued to worship in pre-Reformation churches, generally with few alterations to the interior.

Another major emphasis of the Counter-Reformation was an ongoing missionary endeavour in parts of the world that had been colonized by predominantly Roman Catholic countries, such as Spain and Portugal.

Baroque art and architecture: Baroque art and architecture, the visual arts and building design and construction produced during the era in the history of Western art that roughly coincides with the 17th century. The earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy.

At first, the Baroque style grew out of the Catholic pomp. and confidence accompanying the Counter-Reformation. Later, as the style. spread north, it became popular at royal courts, where it symbolized the Baroque style in the use of vast spaces and curving lines.

Hundreds of. Baroque style period Baroque is a period of artistic style that started around in Rome, Italy, and spread throughout the majority of Europe.

baroque period, era in the history of the Western arts roughly coinciding with the 17th century.

Art in the Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation

After the idealism of the Renaissance (c), and the slightly 'forced' nature of Mannerism (c), Baroque art above all reflected the religious tensions of the age - notably the desire of the Catholic Church in Rome (as annunciated at the Council of Trent, ) to reassert itself in the wake of the Protestant Reformation.

Characteristics of Protestant & Catholic Baroque Art Tasha Brandstatter In the 16th century, the Roman Catholic Church faced a challenge to its authority in the form of the Protestant Reformation, a movement that rejected the supreme authority of the Church in favor of personal faith and the Bible.

Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.

It was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow, and dramatic.

Catholic reformation and baroque style
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Baroque Art: Definition, Styles, History